Используем Kata Containers в Kubernetes

в 7:52, , рубрики: CentOS, containerd, devops, k8s, Kata Containers, Блог компании Southbridge, системное администрирование

Используем Kata Containers в Kubernetes - 1

Данная статья продолжает тему с Kata Containers, поднятую в прошлый раз. Сегодня я буду настраивать Kubernetes для работы с Kata Containers.

Начиная с Kubernetes 1.12 существует возможность RuntimeClass, с помощью которой можно выбрать среду выполнения контейнера. До версии 1.12 Kubernetes не знал о различных средах исполнения, но существовала необходимость запуска доверенных pod'ов (запускаемые с помощью runc) и не доверенных (запускаемые, к примеру, в изолированной среде, например те же Kata Containers). Различные реализации CRI (CRI-O, containerd, оба поддерживаются Kata Containers) были расширены для того, чтобы соответствовать этим требованиям, а для того, чтобы исключить сложности с конфигурацией, и был принят RuntimeClass. Это дает пользователям возможность задания различных сред исполнения без модификации сервисов CRI. Пример настройки на основе Vagrant + CRIO + Kata Containers

В этой статье я буду использовать containerd, который умеет обрабатывать RuntimeClass начиная с версии 1.2.0. Настраивать будем три сервера, используемая операционная система Centos 7.

Кратко остановлюсь на Containerd Runtime V2, который был реализован начиная с Kata Containers 1.5.0, разницу между V1 и V2 можно увидеть на изображении ниже.

Используем Kata Containers в Kubernetes - 2
Архитектура Kata Containers runtime v2 по сравнению с v1

Проводим работу со всеми тремя серверами, если не сказано иначе, имена серверов kata-node1, kata-node2, kata-node3.

Установка

Устанавливаем Kata Containers на чистый сервер с Centos 7, ставим все аналогично предыдущей статье. установку Docker проводить не нужно.

Далее устанавливаем зависимости для containerd:

# yum -y install unzip tar btrfs-progs libseccomp util-linux socat libselinux-python

Качаем и ставим containerd (можно установить чуть более старую версию из репозитория docker, надо 1.2.0+ — в принципе должно работать тоже, но я не проверял):

# VERSION=1.3.3
# curl https://storage.googleapis.com/cri-containerd-release/cri-containerd-${VERSION}.linux-amd64.tar.gz -o cri-containerd-${VERSION}.linux-amd64.tar.gz
# curl https://storage.googleapis.com/cri-containerd-release/cri-containerd-${VERSION}.linux-amd64.tar.gz.sha256
# sha256sum cri-containerd-${VERSION}.linux-amd64.tar.gz # сравниваем с выводом предыдущей команды, если все ок - переходим на следующую строчку
# tar --no-overwrite-dir -C / -xzvf cri-containerd-${VERSION}.linux-amd64.tar.gz
# systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl start containerd

Ставим пакеты для k8s:

# cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF
# yum install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl --disableexcludes=kubernetes
# systemctl enable --now kubelet

Настройка containerd

Создаем конфигурационные файлы для containerd:

mkdir -p /etc/containerd
containerd config default > /etc/containerd/config.toml

Подключаем Kata Containers в containerd, для этого в секции [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.untrusted_workload_runtime] выставляем значение runtime_type в "io.containerd.kata.v2", после секции [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes] добавляем следующие секции:

      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.kata]
         runtime_type = "io.containerd.kata.v2"
         [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.kata.options]
           ConfigPath = "/etc/kata-containers/config.toml"
      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.katacli]
         runtime_type = "io.containerd.runc.v1"
         [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.katacli.options]
           NoPivotRoot = false
           NoNewKeyring = false
           ShimCgroup = ""
           IoUid = 0
           IoGid = 0
           BinaryName = "/usr/bin/kata-runtime"
           Root = ""
           CriuPath = ""
           SystemdCgroup = false

Пример полного конфигурационного файла

version = 2
root = "/var/lib/containerd"
state = "/run/containerd"
plugin_dir = ""
disabled_plugins = []
required_plugins = []
oom_score = 0

[grpc]
  address = "/run/containerd/containerd.sock"
  tcp_address = ""
  tcp_tls_cert = ""
  tcp_tls_key = ""
  uid = 0
  gid = 0
  max_recv_message_size = 16777216
  max_send_message_size = 16777216

[ttrpc]
  address = ""
  uid = 0
  gid = 0

[debug]
  address = ""
  uid = 0
  gid = 0
  level = ""

[metrics]
  address = ""
  grpc_histogram = false

[cgroup]
  path = ""

[timeouts]
  "io.containerd.timeout.shim.cleanup" = "5s"
  "io.containerd.timeout.shim.load" = "5s"
  "io.containerd.timeout.shim.shutdown" = "3s"
  "io.containerd.timeout.task.state" = "2s"

[plugins]
  [plugins."io.containerd.gc.v1.scheduler"]
    pause_threshold = 0.02
    deletion_threshold = 0
    mutation_threshold = 100
    schedule_delay = "0s"
    startup_delay = "100ms"
  [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri"]
    disable_tcp_service = true
    stream_server_address = "127.0.0.1"
    stream_server_port = "0"
    stream_idle_timeout = "4h0m0s"
    enable_selinux = false
    sandbox_image = "k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1"
    stats_collect_period = 10
    systemd_cgroup = false
    enable_tls_streaming = false
    max_container_log_line_size = 16384
    disable_cgroup = false
    disable_apparmor = false
    restrict_oom_score_adj = false
    max_concurrent_downloads = 3
    disable_proc_mount = false
    [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd]
      snapshotter = "overlayfs"
      default_runtime_name = "runc"
      no_pivot = false
      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.default_runtime]
        runtime_type = ""
        runtime_engine = ""
        runtime_root = ""
        privileged_without_host_devices = false
      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.untrusted_workload_runtime]
        runtime_type = "io.containerd.kata.v2"
        runtime_engine = ""
        runtime_root = ""
        privileged_without_host_devices = false
      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes]
        [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.runc]
          runtime_type = "io.containerd.runc.v1"
          runtime_engine = ""
          runtime_root = ""
          privileged_without_host_devices = false
      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.kata]
         runtime_type = "io.containerd.kata.v2"
         [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.kata.options]
       ConfigPath = "/etc/kata-containers/config.toml"
      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.katacli]
         runtime_type = "io.containerd.runc.v1"
         [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".containerd.runtimes.katacli.options]
           NoPivotRoot = false
           NoNewKeyring = false
           ShimCgroup = ""
           IoUid = 0
           IoGid = 0
           BinaryName = "/usr/bin/kata-runtime"
           Root = ""
           CriuPath = ""
           SystemdCgroup = false
    [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".cni]
      bin_dir = "/opt/cni/bin"
      conf_dir = "/etc/cni/net.d"
      max_conf_num = 1
      conf_template = ""
    [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry]
      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors]
        [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors."docker.io"]
          endpoint = ["https://registry-1.docker.io"]
    [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".x509_key_pair_streaming]
      tls_cert_file = ""
      tls_key_file = ""
  [plugins."io.containerd.internal.v1.opt"]
    path = "/opt/containerd"
  [plugins."io.containerd.internal.v1.restart"]
    interval = "10s"
  [plugins."io.containerd.metadata.v1.bolt"]
    content_sharing_policy = "shared"
  [plugins."io.containerd.monitor.v1.cgroups"]
    no_prometheus = false
  [plugins."io.containerd.runtime.v1.linux"]
    shim = "containerd-shim"
    runtime = "runc"
    runtime_root = ""
    no_shim = false
    shim_debug = false
  [plugins."io.containerd.runtime.v2.task"]
    platforms = ["linux/amd64"]
  [plugins."io.containerd.service.v1.diff-service"]
    default = ["walking"]
  [plugins."io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.devmapper"]
    root_path = ""
    pool_name = ""
    base_image_size = ""

Перезапускаем containerd:

# service containerd restart

Проверка containerd

Смотрим, что все верно подключили:

# crictl version
Version:  0.1.0
RuntimeName:  containerd
RuntimeVersion:  v1.3.3
RuntimeApiVersion:  v1alpha2

Скачиваем образ busybox и запускаем, вводим команду uname -a:

# uname -a
Linux kata-node1 3.10.0-1062.12.1.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Tue Feb 4 23:02:59 UTC 2020 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
# ctr image pull docker.io/library/busybox:latest
docker.io/library/busybox:latest:                                                 resolved       |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++|
index-sha256:6915be4043561d64e0ab0f8f098dc2ac48e077fe23f488ac24b665166898115a:    done           |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++|
manifest-sha256:edafc0a0fb057813850d1ba44014914ca02d671ae247107ca70c94db686e7de6: done           |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++|
layer-sha256:bdbbaa22dec6b7fe23106d2c1b1f43d9598cd8fc33706cc27c1d938ecd5bffc7:    done           |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++|
config-sha256:6d5fcfe5ff170471fcc3c8b47631d6d71202a1fd44cf3c147e50c8de21cf0648:   done           |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++|
elapsed: 2.8 s                                                                    total:  746.9  (266.5 KiB/s)
unpacking linux/amd64 sha256:6915be4043561d64e0ab0f8f098dc2ac48e077fe23f488ac24b665166898115a...
done
# ctr run --runtime io.containerd.run.kata.v2 -t --rm docker.io/library/busybox:latest hello sh
/ # uname -a
Linux clr-d8eb8b3fbe2e44a295900b931f3a11c3 4.19.86-6.1.container #1 SMP Thu Jan 1 00:00:00 UTC 1970 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Настройка Kubernetes

Подключаем containerd в k8s:

# echo "KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS=--container-runtime=remote --container-runtime-endpoint=unix:///run/containerd/containerd.sock" > /etc/sysconfig/kubelet

Создаем кластер, команду вводим на kata-node1:

# kubeadm init
W0302 07:30:35.064267   15873 validation.go:28] Cannot validate kube-proxy config - no validator is available
W0302 07:30:35.064379   15873 validation.go:28] Cannot validate kubelet config - no validator is available
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.17.3
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Starting the kubelet
[certs] Using certificateDir folder "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[certs] Generating "ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver" certificate and key
[certs] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [kata-node1 kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 XXXXXXXXX]
[certs] Generating "apiserver-kubelet-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/server" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [kata-node1 localhost] and IPs [XXXXXXXXX 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/peer" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [kata-node1 localhost] and IPs [XXXXXXXXX 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/healthcheck-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver-etcd-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "sa" key and public key
[kubeconfig] Using kubeconfig folder "/etc/kubernetes"
[kubeconfig] Writing "admin.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "kubelet.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "controller-manager.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "scheduler.conf" kubeconfig file
[control-plane] Using manifest folder "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-apiserver"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-controller-manager"
W0302 07:30:38.966500   15873 manifests.go:214] the default kube-apiserver authorization-mode is "Node,RBAC"; using "Node,RBAC"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-scheduler"
W0302 07:30:38.968393   15873 manifests.go:214] the default kube-apiserver authorization-mode is "Node,RBAC"; using "Node,RBAC"
[etcd] Creating static Pod manifest for local etcd in "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[wait-control-plane] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests". This can take up to 4m0s
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 15.502727 seconds
[upload-config] Storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.17" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[upload-certs] Skipping phase. Please see --upload-certs
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node kata-node1 as control-plane by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node kata-node1 as control-plane by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[bootstrap-token] Using token: qrk86x.ue30l5fhydrdgkx2
[bootstrap-token] Configuring bootstrap tokens, cluster-info ConfigMap, RBAC Roles
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstrap-token] Creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[kubelet-finalize] Updating "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf" to point to a rotatable kubelet client certificate and key
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:

kubeadm join XXXXXXXXX:6443 --token qrk86x.ue30l5fhydrdgkx2 
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:2364d351d6afbcc21b439719b6b00c9468e926a906eeb81d96061e15fdfb8f2e

Подключаем сеть:

# export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf
# kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
podsecuritypolicy.policy/psp.flannel.unprivileged created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created
serviceaccount/flannel created
configmap/kube-flannel-cfg created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-amd64 created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm64 created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-ppc64le created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-s390x created

Команду kubeadm join копируем с параметрами и запускаем на остальных серверах.

Копируем к себе в $HOME/.kube/config содержимое файла /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf с kata-node1.

Проверка kubernetes

На локальной машине должен быть установлен kubectl, дальнейшая работа будет именно с ним

$ kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
kata-node1   Ready    master   12m45s  v1.17.3
kata-node2   Ready    node     3m12s   v1.17.3
kata-node3   Ready    node     4m56s   v1.17.3
$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   coredns-6955765f44-j7pd6             1/1     Running   0          5m35s
kube-system   coredns-6955765f44-w7h9w             1/1     Running   0          5m35s
kube-system   etcd-kata-node1                      1/1     Running   0          5m49s
kube-system   kube-apiserver-kata-node1            1/1     Running   0          5m48s
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-kata-node1   1/1     Running   0          5m49s
kube-system   kube-flannel-ds-amd64-g7wv2          1/1     Running   0          3m26s
kube-system   kube-proxy-k8mmb                     1/1     Running   0          5m35s
kube-system   kube-scheduler-kata-node1            1/1     Running   0          5m48s

Пробуем создать untrusted сервис:

$ cat << EOT | tee nginx-untrusted.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx-untrusted
  annotations:
    io.kubernetes.cri.untrusted-workload: "true"
spec:
  containers:
  - name: nginx
    image: nginx

EOT
$ kubectl apply -f nginx-untrusted.yaml
pod/nginx-untrusted created
$ kubectl get pods
NAME              READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-untrusted   1/1     Running   0          31s

Смотрим на серверах, появился ли процесс от Kata Containers:

# ps aux | grep qemu
root      5814  2.0  0.4 2871472 145096 ?      Sl   07:51   0:00 /usr/bin/qemu-vanilla-system-x86_64 -name sandbox-11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e -uuid a7395bac-0a2c-4a16-b931-2fd181f3978e -machine pc,accel=kvm,kernel_irqchip,nvdimm -cpu host -qmp unix:/run/vc/vm/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/qmp.sock,server,nowait -m 2048M,slots=10,maxmem=32725M -device pci-bridge,bus=pci.0,id=pci-bridge-0,chassis_nr=1,shpc=on,addr=2,romfile= -device virtio-serial-pci,disable-modern=false,id=serial0,romfile= -device virtconsole,chardev=charconsole0,id=console0 -chardev socket,id=charconsole0,path=/run/vc/vm/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/console.sock,server,nowait -device nvdimm,id=nv0,memdev=mem0 -object memory-backend-file,id=mem0,mem-path=/usr/share/kata-containers/kata-containers-image_clearlinux_1.10.1_agent_599ef22499.img,size=134217728 -device virtio-scsi-pci,id=scsi0,disable-modern=false,romfile= -object rng-random,id=rng0,filename=/dev/urandom -device virtio-rng,rng=rng0,romfile= -device virtserialport,chardev=charch0,id=channel0,name=agent.channel.0 -chardev socket,id=charch0,path=/run/vc/vm/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/kata.sock,server,nowait -device virtio-9p-pci,disable-modern=false,fsdev=extra-9p-kataShared,mount_tag=kataShared,romfile= -fsdev local,id=extra-9p-kataShared,path=/run/kata-containers/shared/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e,security_model=none -netdev tap,id=network-0,vhost=on,vhostfds=3,fds=4 -device driver=virtio-net-pci,netdev=network-0,mac=f2:dc:cf:85:fa:39,disable-modern=false,mq=on,vectors=4,romfile= -global kvm-pit.lost_tick_policy=discard -vga none -no-user-config -nodefaults -nographic -daemonize -object memory-backend-ram,id=dimm1,size=2048M -numa node,memdev=dimm1 -kernel /usr/share/kata-containers/vmlinuz-4.19.86.60-6.1.container -append tsc=reliable no_timer_check rcupdate.rcu_expedited=1 i8042.direct=1 i8042.dumbkbd=1 i8042.nopnp=1 i8042.noaux=1 noreplace-smp reboot=k console=hvc0 console=hvc1 iommu=off cryptomgr.notests net.ifnames=0 pci=lastbus=0 root=/dev/pmem0p1 rootflags=dax,data=ordered,errors=remount-ro ro rootfstype=ext4 quiet systemd.show_status=false panic=1 nr_cpus=8 agent.use_vsock=false systemd.unit=kata-containers.target systemd.mask=systemd-networkd.service systemd.mask=systemd-networkd.socket -pidfile /run/vc/vm/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/pid -smp 1,cores=1,threads=1,sockets=8,maxcpus=8
# mount | grep 11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e
shm on /run/containerd/io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=65536k)
overlay on /run/containerd/io.containerd.runtime.v2.task/k8s.io/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/rootfs type overlay (rw,relatime,lowerdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/14/fs,upperdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2586/fs,workdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2586/work)
overlay on /run/kata-containers/shared/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/rootfs type overlay (rw,relatime,lowerdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/14/fs,upperdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2586/fs,workdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2586/work)
overlay on /run/kata-containers/shared/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/58a6261df753edd9be35f41db0ba901489198359bdbd9541ab7c7247f46a76b7/rootfs type overlay (rw,relatime,lowerdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2589/fs:/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2588/fs:/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2587/fs,upperdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2590/fs,workdir=/var/lib/containerd/io.containerd.snapshotter.v1.overlayfs/snapshots/2590/work)
/dev/mapper/vg0-root on /run/kata-containers/shared/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/58a6261df753edd9be35f41db0ba901489198359bdbd9541ab7c7247f46a76b7-2d597d0df0adc62b-hosts type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
/dev/mapper/vg0-root on /run/kata-containers/shared/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/58a6261df753edd9be35f41db0ba901489198359bdbd9541ab7c7247f46a76b7-86eb496cb8644f03-termination-log type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
/dev/mapper/vg0-root on /run/kata-containers/shared/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/58a6261df753edd9be35f41db0ba901489198359bdbd9541ab7c7247f46a76b7-4d8cdf8b39958670-hostname type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
/dev/mapper/vg0-root on /run/kata-containers/shared/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/58a6261df753edd9be35f41db0ba901489198359bdbd9541ab7c7247f46a76b7-20f62afd0d08f52d-resolv.conf type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
tmpfs on /run/kata-containers/shared/sandboxes/11b2a0d00fb1948c379aad0d599ce74e1c0be6183bac43e19448401f2bc5b91e/58a6261df753edd9be35f41db0ba901489198359bdbd9541ab7c7247f46a76b7-1af9d7ef02716752-serviceaccount type tmpfs (rw,relatime)

Выводы

Kata Containers являются важнейшим этапом развития облачных технологий, предоставляя безопасность виртуальных машин вместе со скоростью контейнеров. Также можно без особых затрат перейти на использование Kata Containers в Kubernetes, поскольку обеспечивается бесшовная миграция сервисов благодаря стандартизации.

Автор: Павел

Источник


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