Ловим snmp трапы mac-notification с устройств Cisco

в 12:34, , рубрики: Cisco, php, Сетевые технологии

Несмотря на кажущуюся простоту вопроса, пришлось достаточно долго и нудно собирать информацию по крупицам. В данной публикации я хочу поделиться накопленным опытом.

Итак, mac notification — snmp уведомление, которое будет передавать серверу информацию о mac-адресе устройства на порту коммутатора при включении или отключении этого устройства. Весьма удобная штука, расширяющая возможности мониторинга сети через snmp.

Приступим к настройке


Настройка коммутатора не займет много времени:

!В режиме конфигурации
!Добавление новой группы snmp
snmp-server community имя_группы RO 
!Включение mac уведомлений
snmp-server enable traps mac-notification change move threshold 
!Показываем, куда отправлять трапы
snmp-server host IP-АДРЕС_СЕРВЕРА имя_группы  mac-notification snmp
!Настройка таблицы уведомлений
mac address-table notification change
mac address-table notification change interval 15
mac address-table notification change history-size 100

!Выбираем нужные порты и включаем отправление трапов при добавлении или отключении устройства на портах
int range fa0/1-24
snmp trap mac-notification change added
snmp trap mac-notification change removed

Проверить правильность настройки можно в режиме дебага:

debug snmp packets
ter mon

Если все настроено верно, то мы увидим что-то вроде этого:

Nov 11 16:28:51.685: SNMP: Queuing packet to xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
Nov 11 16:28:51.685: SNMP: V1 Trap, ent cmnMIBNotificationPrefix, addr 10.0.28.18, gentrap 6, spectrap 1
 cmnHistMacChangedMsg.37 =
XX 00  XX  XX    XX  XX   XX  XX     XX  00  XX  00
 cmnHistTimestamp.37 = 113588548
Nov 11 16:28:51.937: SNMP: Packet sent via UDP to xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

Хочу обратить внимание на cmnHistMacChangedMsg. Согласно документации, этот объект может передавать несколько mac-адресов в одном трапе.

Настройка сервера состоит из нескольких этапов:

Перед настройкой настоятельно рекомендую проверить, доходят ли udp пакеты до сервера командой tcpdump udp|grep IP_адрес_свича.

  1. Установка snmp сервера и стандартных mib:
    sudo apt-get install snmpd snmp snmptt snmp-mibs-downloader 
    

  2. Установка нужных MIB-файлов
    По умолчанию, snmp сервер не знает о объекте mac-notification в Cisco. Чтобы сервер смог распознать подобный трап, необходимо скачать .mib файлы с ftp и положить их в /var/lib/mibs.
    Вы должны скачать следующие файлы:
    CISCO-MAC-NOTIFICATION-MIB
    CISCO-QOS-PIB-MIB
    CISCO-SMI
    CISCO-TC
    CISCO-VTP-MIB
    

    В случае успешной установки новых mib, на команду

    snmptranslate -m CISCO-MAC-NOTIFICATION-MIB  .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.215 

    сервер ответит

    CISCO-MAC-NOTIFICATION-MIB::ciscoMacNotificationMIB

  3. Настройка файлов конфигурации
    /etc/default/snmpd:

    SNMPDRUN=yes
    SNMPDOPTS='-Lsd -Lf /dev/null -u snmp -g snmp -I -smux,mteTrigger,mteTriggerConf -p /var/run/snmpd.pid'
    TRAPDRUN=yes
    TRAPDOPTS='-On -Lsd -p /var/run/snmptrapd.pid'

    /etc/snmp/snmptrapd.conf:

    #по умолчанию перенаправлять все трапы на демона snmptt
    traphandle default snmptt
    #Разрешить все трапы
    disableAuthorization yes

    /etc/snmp/snmptt.conf:

    #Поиск нужного OID
    EVENT CISCO-MAC-NOTIFICATION-MIB::cmnMacChangedNotification .1.3.6.1.4.1.9.9.215.2.0.1 «Status Events» Normal
    FORMAT Cisco
    #Перенаправление на скрипт.Первый параметр $aA-Ip адрес устройства, второй параметр $1 — OID cmnHistMacChangedMsg,
    #в котом находится информация о статусе, мак-адресе,vlan и интерфейсе устройства.
    #ВНИМАНИЕ!!Cisco может передать в одном трапе несколько записей cmnHistMacChangedMsg.
    EXEC php /opt/script.php $aA $1
    SDESC
    EDESC

    /etc/snmp/snmptt.ini:

    #
    # SNMPTT v1.4 Configuration File
    #
    # Linux / Unix
    #

    [General]
    # Name of this system for $H variable. If blank, system name will be the computer's
    # hostname via Sys::Hostname.
    snmptt_system_name =

    # Set to either 'standalone' or 'daemon'
    # standalone: snmptt called from snmptrapd.conf
    # daemon: snmptrapd.conf calls snmptthandler
    # Ignored by Windows. See documentation
    mode = standalone

    # Set to 1 to allow multiple trap definitions to be executed for the same trap.
    # Set to 0 to have it stop after the first match.
    # This option should normally be set to 1. See the section 'SNMPTT.CONF Configuration
    # file Notes' in the SNMPTT documentation for more information.
    # Note: Wildcard matches are only matched if there are NO exact matches. This takes
    # into consideration the NODES list. Therefore, if there is a matching trap, but
    # the NODES list prevents it from being considered a match, the wildcard entry will
    # only be used if there are no other exact matches.
    multiple_event = 1

    # SNMPTRAPD passes the IP address of device sending the trap, and the IP address of the
    # actual SNMP agent. These addresses could differ if the trap was sent on behalf of another
    # device (relay, proxy etc).
    # If DNS is enabled, the agent IP address is converted to a host name using a DNS lookup
    # (which includes the local hosts file, depending on how the OS is configured). This name
    # will be used for: NODES entry matches, hostname field in logged traps (file / database),
    # and the $A variable. Host names on the NODES line will be resolved and the IP address
    # will then be used for comparing.
    # Set to 0 to disable DNS resolution
    # Set to 1 to enable DNS resolution
    dns_enable = 0

    # Set to 0 to enable the use of FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Names). If a host name is
    # passed to SNMPTT that contains a domain name, it will not be altered in any way by
    # SNMPTT. This also affects resolve_value_ip_addresses.
    # Set to 1 to have SNMPTT strip the domain name from the host name passed to it. For
    # example, server01.domain.com would be changed to server01
    # Set to 2 to have SNMPTT strip the domain name from the host name passed to it
    # based on the list of domains in strip_domain_list
    strip_domain = 0

    # List of domain names that should be stripped when strip_domain is set to 2.
    # List can contain one or more domains. For example, if the FQDN of a host is
    # server01.city.domain.com and the list contains domain.com, the 'host' will be
    # set as server01.city.
    strip_domain_list = <<END
    domain.com
    END

    # Configures how IP addresses contained in the VALUE of the variable bindings are handled.
    # This only applies to the values for $n, $+n, $-n, $vn, $+*, $-*.
    # Set to 0 to disable resolving ip address to host names
    # Set to 1 to enable resolving ip address to host names
    # Note: net_snmp_perl_enable *must* be enabled. The strip_domain settings influence the
    # format of the resolved host name. DNS must be enabled (dns_enable)
    resolve_value_ip_addresses = 0

    # Set to 1 to enable the use of the Perl module from the UCD-SNMP / NET-SNMP package.
    # This is required for $v variable substitution to work, and also for some other options
    # that are enabled in this .ini file.
    # Set to 0 to disable the use of the Perl module from the UCD-SNMP / NET-SNMP package.
    # Note: Enabling this with stand-alone mode can cause SNMPTT to run very slowly due to
    # the loading of the MIBS at startup.
    net_snmp_perl_enable = 0

    # Set to 1 to enable caching of OID and ENUM translations when net_snmp_perl_enable is
    # enabled. Enabling this should result in faster translations.
    # Set to 0 to disable caching.
    # Note: Restart SNMPTT after updating the MIB files for Net-SNMP, otherwise the cache may
    # contain inaccurate data. Defaults to 1.
    net_snmp_perl_cache_enable = 1

    # This sets the best_guess parameter used by the UCD-SNMP / NET-SNMP Perl module for
    # translating symbolic nams to OIDs and vice versa.
    # For UCD-SNMP, and Net-SNMP 5.0.8 and previous versions, set this value to 0.
    # For Net-SNMP 5.0.9, or any Net-SNMP with patch 722075 applied, set this value to 2.
    # A value of 2 is equivalent to -IR on Net-SNMP command line utilities.
    # UCD-SNMP and Net-SNMP 5.0.8 and previous may not be able to translate certain formats of
    # symbolic names such as RFC1213-MIB::sysDescr. Net-SNMP 5.0.9 or patch 722075 will allow
    # all possibilities to be translated. See the FAQ section in the README for more info
    net_snmp_perl_best_guess = 0

    # Configures how the OID of the received trap is handled when outputting to a log file /
    # database. It does NOT apply to the $O variable.
    # Set to 0 to use the default of numerical OID
    # Set to 1 to translate the trap OID to short text (symbolic form) (eg: linkUp)
    # Set to 2 to translate the trap OID to short text with module name (eg: IF-MIB::linkUp)
    # Set to 3 to translate the trap OID to long text (eg: iso...snmpTraps.linkUp)
    # Set to 4 to translate the trap OID to long text with module name (eg:
    # IF-MIB::iso...snmpTraps.linkUp)
    # Note: -The output of the long format will vary depending on the version of Net-SNMP you
    # are using.
    # -net_snmp_perl_enable *must* be enabled
    # -If using database logging, ensure the trapoid column is large enough to hold the
    # entire line
    translate_log_trap_oid = 0

    # Configures how OIDs contained in the VALUE of the variable bindings are handled.
    # This only applies to the values for $n, $+n, $-n, $vn, $+*, $-*. For substitutions
    # that include variable NAMES ($+n etc), only the variable VALUE is affected.
    # Set to 0 to disable translating OID values to text (symbolic form)
    # Set to 1 to translate OID values to short text (symbolic form) (eg: BuildingAlarm)
    # Set to 2 to translate OID values to short text with module name (eg: UPS-MIB::BuildingAlarm)
    # Set to 3 to translate OID values to long text (eg: iso...upsAlarm.BuildingAlarm)
    # Set to 4 to translate OID values to long text with module name (eg:
    # UPS-MIB::iso...upsAlarm.BuildingAlarm)
    # For example, if the value contained: 'A UPS Alarm (.1.3.6.1.4.1.534.1.7.12) has cleared.',
    # it could be translated to: 'A UPS Alarm (UPS-MIB::BuildingAlarm) has cleared.'
    # Note: net_snmp_perl_enable *must* be enabled
    translate_value_oids = 1

    # Configures how the symbolic enterprise OID will be displayed for $E.
    # Set to 1, 2, 3 or 4. See translate_value_oids options 1,2,3 and 4.
    # Note: net_snmp_perl_enable *must* be enabled
    translate_enterprise_oid_format = 1

    # Configures how the symbolic trap OID will be displayed for $O.
    # Set to 1, 2, 3 or 4. See translate_value_oids options 1,2,3 and 4.
    # Note: net_snmp_perl_enable *must* be enabled
    translate_trap_oid_format = 1

    # Configures how the symbolic trap OID will be displayed for $v, $-n, $+n, $-* and $+*.
    # Set to 1, 2, 3 or 4. See translate_value_oids options 1,2,3 and 4.
    # Note: net_snmp_perl_enable *must* be enabled
    translate_varname_oid_format = 1

    # Set to 0 to disable converting INTEGER values to enumeration tags as defined in the
    # MIB files
    # Set to 1 to enable converting INTEGER values to enumeration tags as defined in the
    # MIB files
    # Example: moverDoorState:open instead of moverDoorState:2
    # Note: net_snmp_perl_enable *must* be enabled
    translate_integers = 1

    # Allows you to set the MIBS environment variable used by SNMPTT
    # Leave blank or comment out to have the systems enviroment settings used
    # To have all MIBS processed, set to ALL
    # See the snmp.conf manual page for more info
    mibs_environment = ALL

    # Set what is used to separate variables when wildcards are expanded on the FORMAT /
    # EXEC line. Defaults to a space. Value MUST be within quotes. Can contain 1 or
    # more characters
    wildcard_expansion_separator = " "

    # Set to 1 to allow unsafe REGEX code to be executed.
    # Set to 0 to prevent unsafe REGEX code from being executed (default).
    # Enabling unsafe REGEX code will allow variable interopolation and the use of the e
    # modifier to allow statements such as substitution with captures such
    # as: (one (two) three)(five $1 six)
    # which outputs: five two six
    # or: (one (two) three)(«five ».length($1)." six")e
    # which outputs: five 3 six
    #
    # This is considered unsafe because the contents of the regular expression
    # (right) is executed (eval) by Perl which *could contain unsafe code*.
    # BE SURE THAT THE SNMPTT CONFIGURATION FILES ARE SECURE!
    allow_unsafe_regex = 0

    # Set to 1 to have the backslash (escape) removed from quotes passed from
    # snmptrapd. For example, " would be changed to just "
    # Set to 0 to disable
    remove_backslash_from_quotes = 0

    # Set to 1 to have NODES files loaded each time a trap is processed.
    # Set to 0 to have all NODES files loaded when the snmptt.conf files are loaded.
    # If NODES files are used (files that contain lists of NODES), then setting to 1
    # will cause the list to be loaded each time an EVENT is processed that uses
    # NODES files. This will allow the NODES file to be modified while SNMPTT is
    # running but can result in many file reads depending on the number of traps
    # received. Defaults to 0
    dynamic_nodes = 0

    # This option allows you to use the $D substitution variable to include the
    # description text from the SNMPTT.CONF or MIB files.
    # Set to 0 to disable the $D substitution variable. If $D is used, nothing
    # will be outputted.
    # Set to 1 to enable the $D substitution variable and have it use the
    # descriptions stored in the SNMPTT .conf files. Enabling this option can
    # greatly increase the amount of memory used by SNMPTT.
    # Set to 2 to enable the $D substitution variable and have it use the
    # description from the MIB files. This enables the UCD-SNMP / NET-SNMP Perl
    # module save_descriptions variable. Enabling this option can greatly
    # increase the amount of memory used by the Net-SNMP SNMP Perl module, which
    # will result in an increase of memory usage by SNMPTT.
    description_mode = 0

    # Set to 1 to remove any white space at the start of each line from the MIB
    # or SNMPTT.CONF description when description_mode is set to 1 or 2.
    description_clean = 1

    # Warning: Experimental. Not recommended for production environments.
    # When threads are enabled, SNMPTT may quit unexpectedly.
    # Set to 1 to enable threads (ithreads) in Perl 5.6.0 or higher. If enabled,
    # EXEC will launch in a thread to allow SNMPTT to continue processing other
    # traps. See also threads_max.
    # Set to 0 to disable threads (ithreads).
    # Defaults to 0
    threads_enable = 0

    # Warning: Experimental. Not recommended for production environments.
    # When threads are enabled, SNMPTT may quit unexpectedly.
    # This option allows you to set the maximum number of threads that will
    # execute at once. Defaults to 10
    threads_max = 10

    # The date format for $x in strftime() format. If not defined, defaults
    # to %a %b %e %Y.
    #date_format = %a %b %e %Y

    # The time format for $X in strftime() format. If not defined, defaults
    # to %H:%M:%S.
    #time_format = %H:%M:%S

    # The date time format in strftime() format for the date/time when logging
    # to standard output, snmptt log files (log_file) and the unknown log file
    # (unknown_trap_log_file). Defaults to localtime(). For SQL, see
    # date_time_format_sql.
    # Example: %a %b %e %Y %H:%M:%S
    date_time_format = %H:%M:%S %Y/%m/%d

    [DaemonMode]
    # Set to 1 to have snmptt fork to the background when run in daemon mode
    # Ignored by Windows. See documentation
    daemon_fork = 1

    # Set to the numerical user id (eg: 500) or textual user id (eg: snmptt)
    # that snmptt should change to when running in daemon mode. Leave blank
    # to disable. The user used should have read/write access to all log
    # files, the spool folder, and read access to the configuration files.
    # Only use this if you are starting snmptt as root.
    # A second (child) process will be started as the daemon_uid user so
    # there will be two snmptt processes running. The first process will
    # continue to run as the user that ran snmptt (root), waiting for the
    # child to quit. After the child quits, the parent process will remove
    # the snmptt.pid file and exit.
    daemon_uid = snmptt

    # Complete path of file to store process ID when running in daemon mode.
    pid_file = /var/run/snmptt.pid

    # Directory to read received traps from. Ex: /var/spool/snmptt/
    # Don't forget the trailing slash!
    spool_directory = /var/spool/snmptt/

    # Amount of time in seconds to sleep between processing spool files
    sleep = 5

    # Set to 1 to have SNMPTT use the time that the trap was processed by SNMPTTHANDLER
    # Set to 0 to have SNMPTT use the time the trap was processed. Note: Using 0 can
    # result in the time being off by the number of seconds used for 'sleep'
    use_trap_time = 1

    # Set to 0 to have SNMPTT erase the spooled trap file after it attempts to process
    # the trap even if it did not successfully log the trap to any of the log systems.
    # Set to 1 to have SNMPTT erase the spooled trap file only after it successfully
    # logs to at least ONE log system.
    # Set to 2 to have SNMPTT erase the spooled trap file only after it successfully
    # logs to ALL of the enabled log systems. Warning: If multiple log systems are
    # enabled and only one fails, the other log system will continuously be logged to
    # until ALL of the log systems function.
    # The recommended setting is 1 with only one log system enabled.
    keep_unlogged_traps = 1

    # How often duplicate traps will be processed. An MD5 hash of all incoming traps
    # is stored in memory and is used to check for duplicates. All variables except for
    # the uptime variable are used when calculating the MD5. The larger this variable,
    # the more memory snmptt will require.
    # Note: In most cases it may be a good idea to enable this but sometimes it can have a
    # negative effect. For example, if you are trying to troubleshoot a wireless device
    # that keeps losing it's connection you may want to disable this so that you see
    # all the associations and disassociations.
    # 5 minutes = 300
    # 10 minutes = 600
    # 15 minutes = 900
    duplicate_trap_window = 0

    [Logging]
    # Set to 1 to enable messages to be sent to standard output, or 0 to disable.
    # Would normally be disabled unless you are piping this program to another
    stdout_enable = 0

    # Set to 1 to enable text logging of *TRAPS*. Make sure you specify a log_file
    # location
    log_enable = 1

    # Log file location. The COMPLETE path and filename. Ex: '/var/log/snmptt/snmptt.log'
    log_file = /tmp/my_traps.tmp

    # Set to 1 to enable text logging of *SNMPTT system errors*. Make sure you
    # specify a log_system_file location
    log_system_enable = 0

    # Log file location. The COMPLETE path and filename.
    # Ex: '/var/log/snmptt/snmpttsystem.log'
    log_system_file = /var/log/snmptt/snmpttsystem.log

    # Set to 1 to enable logging of unknown traps. This should normally be left off
    # as the file could grow large quickly. Used primarily for troubleshooting. If
    # you have defined a trap in snmptt.conf, but it is not executing, enable this to
    # see if it is being considered an unknown trap due to an incorrect entry or
    # simply missing from the snmptt.conf file.
    # Unknown traps can be logged either a text file, a SQL table or both.
    # See SQL section to define a SQL table to log unknown traps to.
    unknown_trap_log_enable = 1

    # Unknown trap log file location. The COMPLETE path and filename.
    # Ex: '/var/log/snmptt/snmpttunknown.log'
    # Leave blank to disable logging to text file if logging to SQL is enabled
    # for unknown traps
    unknown_trap_log_file = /var/log/snmptt/snmpttunknown.log

    # How often in seconds statistics should be logged to syslog or the event log.
    # Set to 0 to disable
    # 1 hour = 216000
    # 12 hours = 2592000
    # 24 hours = 5184000
    statistics_interval = 0

    # Set to 1 to enable logging of *TRAPS* to syslog. If you do not have the Sys::Syslog
    # module then disable this. Windows users should disable this.
    syslog_enable = 1

    # Syslog facility to use for logging of *TRAPS*. For example: 'local0'
    syslog_facility = local0

    # Set the syslog level for *TRAPS* based on the severity level of the trap
    # as defined in the snmptt.conf file. Values must be one per line between
    # the syslog_level_* and END lines, and are not case sensitive. For example:
    # Warning
    # Critical
    # Duplicate definitions will use the definition with the higher severity.
    syslog_level_debug = <<END
    END
    syslog_level_info = <<END
    END
    syslog_level_notice = <<END
    END
    syslog_level_warning = <<END
    END
    syslog_level_err = <<END
    END
    syslog_level_crit = <<END
    END
    syslog_level_alert = <<END
    END

    # Syslog default level to use for logging of *TRAPS*. For example: warning
    # Valid values: emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice, info, debug
    syslog_level = warning

    # Set to 1 to enable logging of *SNMPTT system errors* to syslog. If you do not have the
    # Sys::Syslog module then disable this. Windows users should disable this.
    syslog_system_enable = 1

    # Syslog facility to use for logging of *SNMPTT system errors*. For example: 'local0'
    syslog_system_facility = local0

    # Syslog level to use for logging of *SNMPTT system errors*… For example: 'warning'
    # Valid values: emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice, info, debug
    syslog_system_level = warning

    [SQL]
    # Determines if the enterprise column contains the numeric OID or symbolic OID
    # Set to 0 for numeric OID
    # Set to 1 for symbolic OID
    # Uses translate_enterprise_oid_format to determine format
    # Note: net_snmp_perl_enable *must* be enabled
    db_translate_enterprise = 0

    # FORMAT line to use for unknown traps. If not defined, defaults to $-*.
    db_unknown_trap_format = '$-*'

    # List of custom SQL column names and values for the table of received traps
    # (defined by *_table below). The format is
    # column name
    # value
    #
    # For example:
    #
    # binding_count
    # $#
    # uptime2
    # The agent has been up for $T.
    sql_custom_columns = <<END
    END

    # List of custom SQL column names and values for the table of unknown traps
    # (defined by *_table_unknown below). See sql_custom_columns for the format.
    sql_custom_columns_unknown = <<END
    END

    # MySQL: Set to 1 to enable logging to a MySQL database via DBI (Linux / Windows)
    # This requires DBI:: and DBD::mysql
    mysql_dbi_enable = 0

    # MySQL: Hostname of database server (optional — default localhost)
    mysql_dbi_host = localhost

    # MySQL: Port number of database server (optional — default 3306)
    mysql_dbi_port = 3306

    # MySQL: Database to use
    mysql_dbi_database = snmptt

    # MySQL: Table to use
    mysql_dbi_table = snmptt

    # MySQL: Table to use for unknown traps
    # Leave blank to disable logging of unknown traps to MySQL
    # Note: unknown_trap_log_enable must be enabled.
    mysql_dbi_table_unknown = snmptt_unknown

    # MySQL: Table to use for statistics
    # Note: statistics_interval must be set. See also stat_time_format_sql.
    #mysql_dbi_table_statistics = snmptt_statistics
    mysql_dbi_table_statistics =

    # MySQL: Username to use
    mysql_dbi_username = snmpttuser

    # MySQL: Password to use
    mysql_dbi_password = password

    # MySQL: Whether or not to 'ping' the database before attempting an INSERT
    # to ensure the connection is still valid. If *any* error is generate by
    # the ping such as 'Unable to connect to database', it will attempt to
    # re-create the database connection.
    # Set to 0 to disable
    # Set to 1 to enable
    # Note: This has no effect on mysql_ping_interval.
    mysql_ping_on_insert = 1

    # MySQL: How often in seconds the database should be 'pinged' to ensure the
    # connection is still valid. If *any* error is generate by the ping such as
    # 'Unable to connect to database', it will attempt to re-create the database
    # connection. Set to 0 to disable pinging.
    # Note: This has no effect on mysql_ping_on_insert.
    # disabled = 0
    # 5 minutes = 300
    # 15 minutes = 900
    # 30 minutes = 1800
    mysql_ping_interval = 300

    # PostgreSQL: Set to 1 to enable logging to a PostgreSQL database via DBI (Linux / Windows)
    # This requires DBI:: and DBD::PgPP
    postgresql_dbi_enable = 0

    # Set to 0 to use the DBD::PgPP module
    # Set to 1 to use the DBD::Pg module
    postgresql_dbi_module = 0

    # Set to 0 to disable host and port network support
    # Set to 1 to enable host and port network support
    # If set to 1, ensure PostgreSQL is configured to allow connections via TCPIP by setting
    # tcpip_socket = true in the $PGDATA/postgresql.conf file, and adding the ip address of
    # the SNMPTT server to $PGDATApg_hba.conf. The common location for the config files for
    # RPM installations of PostgreSQL is /var/lib/pgsql/data.
    postgresql_dbi_hostport_enable = 0

    # PostgreSQL: Hostname of database server (optional — default localhost)
    postgresql_dbi_host = localhost

    # PostgreSQL: Port number of database server (optional — default 5432)
    postgresql_dbi_port = 5432

    # PostgreSQL: Database to use
    postgresql_dbi_database = snmptt

    # PostgreSQL: Table to use for unknown traps
    # Leave blank to disable logging of unknown traps to PostgreSQL
    # Note: unknown_trap_log_enable must be enabled.
    postgresql_dbi_table_unknown = snmptt_unknown

    # PostgreSQL: Table to use for statistics
    # Note: statistics_interval must be set. See also stat_time_format_sql.
    #postgresql_dbi_table_statistics = snmptt_statistics
    postgresql_dbi_table_statistics =

    # PostgreSQL: Table to use
    postgresql_dbi_table = snmptt

    # PostgreSQL: Username to use
    postgresql_dbi_username = snmpttuser

    # PostgreSQL: Password to use
    postgresql_dbi_password = password

    # PostgreSQL: Whether or not to 'ping' the database before attempting an INSERT
    # to ensure the connection is still valid. If *any* error is generate by
    # the ping such as 'Unable to connect to database', it will attempt to
    # re-create the database connection.
    # Set to 0 to disable
    # Set to 1 to enable
    # Note: This has no effect on postgresqll_ping_interval.
    postgresql_ping_on_insert = 1

    # PostgreSQL: How often in seconds the database should be 'pinged' to ensure the
    # connection is still valid. If *any* error is generate by the ping such as
    # 'Unable to connect to database', it will attempt to re-create the database
    # connection. Set to 0 to disable pinging.
    # Note: This has no effect on postgresql_ping_on_insert.
    # disabled = 0
    # 5 minutes = 300
    # 15 minutes = 900
    # 30 minutes = 1800
    postgresql_ping_interval = 300

    # ODBC: Set to 1 to enable logging to a database via ODBC using DBD::ODBC.
    # This requires both DBI:: and DBD::ODBC
    dbd_odbc_enable = 0

    # DBD:ODBC: Database to use
    dbd_odbc_dsn = snmptt

    # DBD:ODBC: Table to use
    dbd_odbc_table = snmptt

    # DBD:ODBC: Table to use for unknown traps
    # Leave blank to disable logging of unknown traps to DBD:ODBC
    # Note: unknown_trap_log_enable must be enabled.
    dbd_odbc_table_unknown = snmptt_unknown

    # DBD:ODBC: Table to use for statistics
    # Note: statistics_interval must be set. See also stat_time_format_sql.
    #dbd_odbc_table_statistics = snmptt_statistics
    dbd_odbc_table_statistics =

    # DBD:ODBC: Username to use
    dbd_odbc_username = snmptt

    # DBD:DBC:: Password to use
    dbd_odbc_password = password

    # DBD:ODBC: Whether or not to 'ping' the database before attempting an INSERT
    # to ensure the connection is still valid. If *any* error is generate by
    # the ping such as 'Unable to connect to database', it will attempt to
    # re-create the database connection.
    # Set to 0 to disable
    # Set to 1 to enable
    # Note: This has no effect on dbd_odbc_ping_interval.
    dbd_odbc_ping_on_insert = 1

    # DBD:ODBC:: How often in seconds the database should be 'pinged' to ensure the
    # connection is still valid. If *any* error is generate by the ping such as
    # 'Unable to connect to database', it will attempt to re-create the database
    # connection. Set to 0 to disable pinging.
    # Note: This has no effect on dbd_odbc_ping_on_insert.
    # disabled = 0
    # 5 minutes = 300
    # 15 minutes = 900
    # 30 minutes = 1800
    dbd_odbc_ping_interval = 300

    # The date time format for the traptime column in SQL. Defaults to
    # localtime(). When a date/time field is used in SQL, this should
    # be changed to follow a standard that is supported by the SQL server.
    # Example: For a MySQL DATETIME, use %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.
    #date_time_format_sql =

    # The date time format for the stat_time column in SQL. Defaults to
    # localtime(). When a date/time field is used in SQL, this should
    # be changed to follow a standard that is supported by the SQL server.
    # Example: For a MySQL DATETIME, use %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.
    #stat_time_format_sql =

    [Exec]

    # Set to 1 to allow EXEC statements to execute. Should normally be left on unless you
    # want to temporarily disable all EXEC commands
    exec_enable = 1

    # Set to 1 to allow PREEXEC statements to execute. Should normally be left on unless you
    # want to temporarily disable all PREEXEC commands
    pre_exec_enable = 1

    # If defined, the following command will be executed for ALL unknown traps. Passed to the
    # command will be all standard and enterprise variables, similar to unknown_trap_log_file
    # but without the newlines.
    unknown_trap_exec =

    # FORMAT line that is passed to the unknown_trap_exec command. If not defined, it
    # defaults to what is described in the unknown_trap_exec setting. The following
    # would be *similar* to the default described in the unknown_trap_exec setting
    # (all on one line):
    # $x!!! $X: Unknown trap ($o) received from $A at: Value 0: $A Value 1: $aR
    # Value 2: $T Value 3: $o Value 4: $aA Value 5: $C Value 6: $e Ent Values: $+*
    unknown_trap_exec_format =

    # Set to 1 to escape wildards (* and ?) in EXEC, PREEXEC and the unknown_trap_exec
    # commands. Enable this to prevent the shell from expanding the wildcard
    # characters. The default is 1.
    exec_escape = 1

    [Debugging]
    # 0 — do not output messages
    # 1 — output some basic messages
    # 2 — out all messages
    DEBUGGING = 2

    # Debugging file — SNMPTT
    # Location of debugging output file. Leave blank to default to STDOUT (good for
    # standalone mode, or daemon mode without forking)
    DEBUGGING_FILE = /tmp/snmptt.debug
    # DEBUGGING_FILE = /var/log/snmptt/snmptt.debug

    # Debugging file — SNMPTTHANDLER
    # Location of debugging output file. Leave blank to default to STDOUT
    DEBUGGING_FILE_HANDLER =
    # DEBUGGING_FILE_HANDLER = /var/log/snmptt/snmptthandler.debug

    [TrapFiles]
    # A list of snmptt.conf files (this is NOT the snmptrapd.conf file). The COMPLETE path
    # and filename. Ex: '/etc/snmp/snmptt.conf'
    snmptt_conf_files = <<END
    /etc/snmp/snmptt.conf
    END

  4. Собственно, сам скрипт обработки(я полагаю, что на сервере уже установлен и настроен php и mysql):
    /opt/script.php

    #!/usr/bin/php -q
    <?php
    	//Массив argv содержит переменные,переданные из командной строки
    	//$argv[0] всегда содержит имя файла запущенного скрипта
    	//см. /etc/snmp/snmptt.conf .Первый аргумент-ip,второй-Mac-Notification
     
    	//ip-адрес
    	$ip=$argv[1];
     
     
    	//все mac-notification в строке mac_msg
    	for($i=2;$i<=count($argv)-2;$i++)
    	{
    		$mac_msg .= $argv[$i];
    	}
     
    	//разделить строку mac_msg на отдельные mac-notification
    	$mac_notification = str_split($mac_msg,22);
     
     
     
    	//Подключение к бд
    
    	/*Структура таблицы
    	CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `mac_notification` (
    	  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    	  `date_create` datetime NOT NULL,
    	  `status` varchar(20) NOT NULL,
    	  `vlan` varchar(250) NOT NULL,
    	  `mac` varchar(20) NOT NULL,
    	  `interface` int(11) NOT NULL,
    	  `ip` varchar(250) NOT NULL,
    	  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
    	) ENGINE=InnoDB  DEFAULT CHARSET=utf32  ;
    	*/
    	
    
    	$CONF_DB = array (
    		'host' 		=> 'localhost', 
    		'username'	=> 'USERNAME',
    		'password'	=> 'PASSWORD',
    		'db_name'	=> 'mac'
    	);
    	$dbConnection = new PDO(
    		'mysql:host='.$CONF_DB['host'].';dbname='.$CONF_DB['db_name'],
    		$CONF_DB['username'],
    		$CONF_DB['password'],
    		array(PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND => "SET NAMES utf8")
    	);
    	$dbConnection->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES, false);
    	$dbConnection->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
     
     
    	foreach($mac_notification as $value)
    	{
    		//Парсинг каждого mac-notification 
    		$status=substr($value,0,2);
    		$vlan=hexdec(substr($value,2,4));
    		$mac=substr($value,6,12);
    		$mac = mb_strtolower(substr_replace($mac,".",4).substr_replace(substr($mac,4,8),".",4).substr($mac,8,12));
    		$interface=hexdec(substr($value,20,2));
     
    		$stmt = $dbConnection->prepare('INSERT INTO mac_notification (date_create,status,mac,interface,ip,vlan) VALUES (now(), :status, :mac, :interface, :ip, :vlan)');
    		$stmt->execute(array(':status'=>$status,':mac'=>$mac,':interface'=>$interface,':ip'=>$ip,':vlan'=>$vlan));
     
    	}
    ?>
    

Данная статья — всего лишь конкретный пример широкого применения snmp трапов. На Cisco ftp можно найти еще больше интересных функций.

Надеюсь, моя публикация помогла вам сэкономить время.

Автор: Zaredis

Источник


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